Internet of Things (IoT) Tutorial

List of IoT Hardware Components and Devices

Table of Contents

  • Understanding Hardware for IoT
  • Different Modules in IoT Hardware Requirements
  • Different IoT Hardware Essential for Connectivity
  • Quiz!

Understanding Hardware for IoT

It is a very important thing in IoT solutions. Sensors collecting information and the processors in smartphones are the best examples of IoT hardware devices.

IoT hardware can be made using Micro Controller Units. On-chip resources, power, interfaces are needed as per the sensors. 

Hardware Components and Devices of IoT

Ideal IoT hardware prototype parameters:

  • Types of sensors

  • Communication interface type

  • Captured and transmitted data

  • Data transportation frequency

IoT devices manage some major functions, like security, activation, communication, etc. A wide range of devices use routing, bridges, sensors, and they are primary sources. Hardware impacts the cost, user’s experience with the devices, and applications. 

Different Modules in IoT Hardware Requirements

1. Thing

This is the asset that the user controls or monitors. The thing gets completely incorporated into a smart IoT device. These devices control and monitor themselves like automatic vehicles and smart refrigerators.

2. Data Acquisition Module

It acquires physical signals and converts them to digital signals so they can be modified by computers. Physical signals like temperature, light, motion are converted into digital signals with the hardware called the data acquisition module.

The number of sensors in this module depends on the use. The additional hardware includes signal conditioning, scaling, analog to digital conversion, etc.

A user needs to know about the type of sensors, the number of sensors, sensor resolution, and sample rate. It will provide answers to how much data will be processed with the data acquisition module.

3. Data Processing Module

This block is used to process data, calculate and store data, analytics locally, and on edge computing. Two important areas to look for are processing power and data storage amount.

It affects performance, cost, size, and functions in IoT devices. There are several items that affect the processing power in IoT. A user must know the number of sensors in the processing module.

It will increase the processing power, and for that, improved systems are required.

4. Communication Module

This module is used on the cloud or on a local network for communicating with third-party systems. This final module in the building block in IoT enables signal communication with the cloud and on third-party systems. It can be done either locally or with the help of the cloud network.

This module has communication ports like USB, Ethernet/IP, CAN, Modbus with radio technologies like WiFi, LoRA, ZigBee for wireless communications.

Different IoT Hardware Essential for Connectivity

1. Sensors

Sensors are used to gather information in IoT applications. This is made of power management modules, energy and sensing modules, and RF. Communication is done through RF.

2. Microcontrollers

This is a device in an integrated circuit used to execute a single task that will run a program or application. These are designed for embedded applications and are widely used in remotely operated devices like electronic machines. It contains a programmable memory unit and a central processing unit.

3. Other IoT hardware

Other smart devices come under this category. Devices such as glasses and watches are primary examples of this. These devices allow users to access more content on IoT.


Which of the following is not an IoT hardware?

Select the correct answer

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