Android Penetration Testing Tutorial For Beginners

What is Android Architecture & Its Core Components? Explained

Different Sections in Android OS Architecture

The architecture of Android OS is a combination of different sections and layers, as shown in the diagram below:

Android system architecture

  • Application Framework

The application framework is meant for app developers. They can use a number of services from this framework in the form of Java classes. The services in the framework include activity manager, content provider, resource manager, notification manager, and view system. 

  • Binder IPC

Binder IPC or Inter-Process Communication is a mechanism that enables interaction between framework APIs and system services. 

  • System Services

System services include a number of components like Window Manager, Notification Manager, and Search Service. The framework APIs interact with these system services to make the functionalities work.

  • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)

It is a standard layer for hardware vendors that allows them to apply the functionalities without making changes to higher-level systems. 

  • Linux Kernel

A compatible version of the Linux kernel is used for developing system functionalities. In Android, the Linux kernel that is chosen comes with a number of certain auditions like wake locks, low memory killer, Binder IPC driver, etc. 

  • HAL Interface Definition Language (AIDL/HIDL)

The role of a HIDL is to define the inter-process communication (IPC) between the HAL and Android framework.

Whereas, AIDL is for inter-process communication (IPC) within the Android framework. 

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